Here comes the second episode of this series! Have you noted down some reason and result clauses we mentioned? These sentence patterns are super useful in your IELTS writing and speaking!


1. Be a contributing factor


Human error may have been a contributing factor.


2. Be contributing to


Stress is widely perceived as contributing to coronary heart disease.


3. Be attributable to


The health problems are attributable to a poor diet and lack of exercise.


4. Be attributed to


Juvenile delinquency can be attributed to parental permissiveness.


5. ⋯, if for no other reason than


It is essential, if for no other reason that the cost, that people should stop smoking.


6. ⋯, if only because


We are confident if only because we are making progress.


7. ⋯, not least because


His English is excellent, not least because he was educated at a British boarding school.